BASIC FACTS AND ECOLOGICAL PROFILE OF THE CITY OF NAGA
Location and Political Territory
Located in the southeastern part of the Province of Cebu with a longitude of 123 45’ 30” and latitude of 10 12’ 41” on the Philippine map, the City of Naga is part of Metro Cebu located approximately 21 kilometers away from Cebu City. It takes between 30 and 45 minutes to travel back and forth to the city center from Cebu City. It has a total land area of 10,217 hectares bounded from the north by Minglanilla, from the south by San Fernando, from the east by the Bohol Strait, and from the west by Toledo City. The City has twenty-eight (28) barangays, eleven (11) of which are considered urban located along the coastal areas, namely: South Poblacion, North Poblacion, East Poblacion, West Poblacion, Central Poblacion, Inayagan, Colon, Tina-an, Inoburan, Tuyan, and Langtad while the remaining seventeen (17) barangays are considered rural located in the mountainous areas namely: Tangke, Na-alad, Mainit, Jaguimit, Patag, Cantao-an, Cogon, Uling, Balirong, Cabungahan, Bairan, Pangdan, Alpaco, Lutac, Tagjaguimit, Lanas, and Mayana. The figure below shows the political jurisdiction of the City of Naga
Figure 1: Political Map
The place now known as Naga was abundant with Narra trees in the olden times. The early settlers called the area “Narra,” which was later on coined as “Naga.” Considered as one of the oldest settlements in the Province of Cebu, Naga became a municipality on June 12, 1829 and has gone through a series of reclassification simultaneous with its healthy and dynamic economic development.
The tranquil farming and fishing villages of the natives were raised to a fuss when the Spaniards arrived and explored the coal mining in the upland barangays. Coal then became the first export of the town, as the Spaniards mined and sent them to Spain. Second to coal was the cement product as the town was abundant with lime.
The mining industry for construction purposes undeniably triggered the successful industrial development of Naga. As the years progressed, quite a number of manufacturing companies and other industries flourished in the place eventually making Naga as one of the industrialized locality in Cebu at present and earned the name “The Industrial Hub of Southern Cebu.”
Naga has gained its new status from 1st class municipality into a component city in the First District of Cebu by virtue of Republic Act 9491, which was ratified by a plebiscite on September 02, 2007 under the sponsorship of Congressman Eduardo R. Gullas, now respected as the “Father of the City of Naga, Cebu.” The City of Naga celebrates its charter day every 5th of September.
Alluvium, Carcar limestone formation, Pandan formation, Ilag formation, Toledo-Bulacao andesite, and Uling formation are types of geologic rocks present in the City of Naga. Alluvium can be found in the coastal and river flood plains. Silt, clay, sand, and gravel are found in coastal plains. Narrow alluvium borders most of the interior streams including beach deposits of sand, coral reefs, and some detritus igneous rocks.
The Carcar limestone formation is typically a porous, coralline poorly bedded or massive limestone. This limestone has an average thickness of about 300 meters and is seldom less than 150 meters thick. Because of its great porosity and favorable position in the geologic column, the Carcar formation is noted for its vigorous freshwater springs, which provide excellent water supply for numerous communities.
The Pandan formation flanks the central highlands on the west and concentrate on the east side of the Balamban fault. This formation is made up of cretaceous sediments and metamorphosed limestone. The Ilag Limestone formation generally exhibits a modified haycock topography with vertical cliffs marking its margins. This formation is said to be coal-bearing.
The Toledo Formation is found in low rolling hills and gentle shales broad V-shaped valleys. This formation is composed of white bentoniticshales underlain by brown carbonaceous shales locally coal bearing all with limestone. The Bulacao andesite is folded and faulted with a monoclinal component of a once extensive dome. It is typically perphyritic and generally breciated in texture. Andesite plagivelase, brown or brownish green horablends, augits and hypersthenes constitute the pheneorysts, which are set in glassy microliticgroundness. Zoned plagioclase crystals usually contain abundant vacueles and brown inclusion. The horablends have small extension angles and seem to approach the basaltic type of horablend in optical properties. The Uling Limestone formation occurs mainly as widely scattered ventricular bodies along the principal fault zones of Central Cebu.
The City of Naga site consists of mountain ranges on the western side while on the opposite eastern side is the Bohol Strait. The mountain ranges have an elevation of around 120 meters above mean sea level (AMSL) and define the watershed. Runoff water flows down from the mountain bringing loose soils and gravel materials from the mountain areas, and via existing gullies, discharges into the coastal areas.
Soil composition in the area is of five types, namely: Faraon Clay, Lugo Clay, Faraon Clay Steep Phase, Mandaue Clay Loam and Baguio Clay Loam. Predominant is Faraon Clay Steep Phase, which comprises 39.36% of the total land area.
Faraon Clay – This type of soil is usually found in areas with undulating to hilly slope. The principal distinguishing characteristics of this type is its black heavy clay soils with outcrops of gray, coralline and porous limestone. The surface is littered with pebbles and cobbles of limestone. This soil remains moderately friable and maintains its excellent good structure when dry. Those areas with this type of soil are widely planted with coconut, corn, cassava, banana, and fruit trees.
Faraon Clay Steep Phase – Areas having this type of soil are located mostly in steep hills and mountains.
Lugo Clay – This type is a residual soil developed from lime and shale suited to the growing of sugarcane, coconut, tobacco, banana, etc.
Mandaue Clay – The surface soil of this type is light brown to dark depending upon the amount of organic matter and moisture content. It is friable when just moist, thick, sticky and soft when wet and hard when dry. The substratum is made up of compact clay loam.
Figure 2: Mineral Map
Climate and Rainfall
Temperature is relatively constant throughout the year with daily fluctuation of 7°C. The easterly trade winds bring warm dry air. The weather is relatively moderate and is endowed with a tropical climate. Humidity is 78%, coldest temperature usually occurs during the months of December to February, and wet seasons are expected during November. Mean temperature range is from 19.2°C-36.4°C. Average annual rainfall is 28.1 mm per year and the annual rainfall is 1,638.20 mm. The minimum monthly rainfall is 23.9 mm. and the maximum monthly rainfall is 32.8 mm.
The climate of the City of Naga is characterized by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) as the third type of climate, which is characterized by no distinct wet and dry season. This is predominant throughout the whole province of Cebu. The summer heat, which generally comes in March, reaches its peak in April and May.
Population and Demographic Profile
Based on the 2015 census conducted in the City of Naga by the National Statistics Office (NSO), the population stands at 115,750. With a population of 101,458 in the 2010, the current intercensal population growth rate of the city in 2015 is 2.52%. There are 23,150 households in the City with an average of 5 persons per household. Based on 2.52% population growth rate, the population is expect to rise from 115,750 in 2015 to119,896 in 2022. The projected populations of the City from 2016 to 2022 are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Population 2015 and Population Projection 2016-2022, City of Naga
There are more females than males in the City of Naga with a ratio of 1.028females to 1 male in 2015. The population is relatively young with those less than 20 years old comprising 46.45% of the total population in 2015. In the same year, the second largest age group is between 20 to 59 years old composing 45.79% of the total population. Those over 84 years old are the least population group constituting only 0.41% of the total population.
Table 2: Population Distribution by Age Group and Sex, Year 2010 and 2015
The productive age group of 15 to 59 years old comprises 56.03% of the total population in 2015. The Potential Labor Force (PLF) of 15-64 years old represents 59.22% of the total population in 2015. Considering the PLF and the Dependent Age Group (DAG), the dependency ratio would be 1:0.69 or for 1 worker there would be 0.69 dependent. For those 15 years and above, it is estimated that 53% are employed such as self-employment, service employees, daily-paid workers, manual laborers, and regular employees in the government and private sectors. The remaining 47% of this age group are unemployed, as shown in table below.
Table 3: Labor Force Population by Sex and Employment Status, Year 2015
However, there has been an increase of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW) by 10.67% in 2015 compared to the 2014. The table below shows the increase / decrease trend of OFWs for the past years (2011-2015). The trend indicates a growing number of Nagahanons seeking employment overseas.
Table 4: Overseas Filipino Workers for the Past Five Years (2011-2015)
With a land area of 10,217 has or 102.17 km² and a 2015 population of 115,750, there are 11persons per hectare or 1,144 persons per km² in the City of Naga. Using the 2022 projected population of 119,895.9, the City’s population density would be 12 persons per hectare or 1,175 persons per km². It is more densely populated compared to the Province of Cebu’s 2015 population density of 594 persons per km².
Mother Tongue and Religious Affiliation
The dialect commonly used in the household is Cebuano. The table shows the breakdown of languages used in the household.
Table 5: Household Population by Mother Tongue, Year 2015
Roman Catholics comprise 97.2% of the population and the remaining religious denominations are distributed among the Iglesia ni Cristo, Islam, Seventh Day Adventists, Protestants, Baptists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Mormons, and other various religious groups.
Table 6: Population by Religious Affiliation, Year 2015
The average growth rate of the City in 2010 was 2.40%. In 2015, it rose to 2.52%. The increase in the population can be attributed to biological growth and in-migration as the City became known of its industries. The City has been a magnet for migrant laborers looking for jobs in industries and other commercial ventures.
As reported by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), the poverty incidence in the Philippines as of 2015 was 21.6%. Based on its Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS) in 2015, the poverty incidence in the City of Naga was 44%. It is higher than the national, regional (27%), and provincial (21.5%) figures as of 2015. It is estimated that a total of 11,451 families in the City of Naga are within the poverty threshold. It is estimated that about 40% of those who are employed are underemployed.
The Philippine literacy rate in 2015 is placed at 96.3% (World Bank), the Central Visayas is at 98.5% (Philippine Statistics Authority), and the Province of Cebu is 91.45 (PSA). The literacy rate in the City of Naga is 79.67% as reported by its CBMS for the same period. This figure is lower than the national, regional, and provincial averages.
Table 7: Literacy Rate of Population 10 Years Old and Over, by Sex, Year 2015
Educational Attainment of the Population
The following information show the percentage of the educational attainment of the population of the City of Naga as of 2015:
- Pre-school – 3.26%
- Elementary (grades 1-4) – 21.18%
- Elementary (grades 5-6) – 6.88%
- Elementary graduate – 11.91%
- Secondary high school undergraduate (grades 7-10)– 16.80%
- Junior high school graduate – 21.75%
- TESDA (vocational course) – 1.27%
- College undergraduate – 8.52%
- College graduate – 7.92%
- Post-baccalaureate – 0.08%
- Not stated – 0.11%
Based on the above information, the highest educational attainment of the population is elementary and high school considering the high percentage of the young population in the City.
The table below shows the number of persons and their educational level as of 2015.
Table 8: Population 5 Years Old and Over by Highest Educational Attainment, 2015
The social services in the City are provided by the City Social Welfare and Development Office (CSWDO), City Health Office (CHO) and Birthing Center (to become an infirmary in 2018), Population Office (PO), the Philippine National Police (PNP), Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP), Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP), and the Department of Education (DepEd). These offices provide the services on social welfare and development (women, children, youth, senior citizens, persons with disabilities, emergency assistance for indigents, solo parents, family and community, and internally displaced persons and families); peace and order; and education. The CSWDO is composed of 35 personnel, the CHO with 93, the PO with 4, the PNP with 68, the BJMP with 21, the BFP with 13, and the DepEd with 1,200. There are also private schools, offices, and health services.
The next table highlights the number of pupils / students enrolled in public and private elementary and high schools for SY 2015 in the City of Naga. It also shows the classroom and teacher ratios as to the number of pupils / students. The table indicates that there are better ratios in private than in public schools. The DepEd has indicated that the standard ratio is 1 teacher / classroom to 30-35 students / pupils.
Table 9: Student-Teacher and Student-Classroom Ration by Level, SY 2015